Translation.pm 29.1 KB
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=head1 LICENSE

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  Copyright (c) 1999-2010 The European Bioinformatics Institute and
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  Genome Research Limited.  All rights reserved.

  This software is distributed under a modified Apache license.
  For license details, please see

    http://www.ensembl.org/info/about/code_licence.html

=head1 CONTACT

  Please email comments or questions to the public Ensembl
  developers list at <ensembl-dev@ebi.ac.uk>.

  Questions may also be sent to the Ensembl help desk at
  <helpdesk@ensembl.org>.

=cut
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=head1 NAME

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Bio::EnsEMBL::Translation - A class representing the translation of a
transcript
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=head1 SYNOPSIS

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  my $translation = Bio::EnsEMBL::Translation->new(
    -START_EXON => $exon1,
    -END_EXON   => $exon2,
    -SEQ_START  => 98,
    -SEQ_END    => 39
  );

  # stable ID setter
  $translation->stable_id('ENSP00053458');

  # get start and end position in start/end exons
  my $start = $translation->start;
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  my $end   = $translation->end;
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=head1 DESCRIPTION

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A Translation object defines the CDS and UTR regions of a Transcript
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through the use of start_Exon/end_Exon, and start/end attributes.
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=cut


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package Bio::EnsEMBL::Translation;

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use vars qw($AUTOLOAD @ISA);
use strict;

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use Scalar::Util qw(weaken);

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use Bio::EnsEMBL::Utils::Exception qw( deprecate throw warning );
use Bio::EnsEMBL::Utils::Argument qw( rearrange );
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use Bio::EnsEMBL::Storable;
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@ISA = qw(Bio::EnsEMBL::Storable);
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=head2 new

  Arg [-START_EXON] : The Exon object in which the translation (CDS) starts
  Arg [-END_EXON]   : The Exon object in which the translation (CDS) ends
  Arg [-SEQ_START]  : The offset in the start_Exon indicating the start
                      position of the CDS.
  Arg [-SEQ_END]    : The offset in the end_Exon indicating the end
                      position of the CDS.
  Arg [-STABLE_ID]  : The stable identifier for this Translation
  Arg [-VERSION]    : The version of the stable identifier
  Arg [-DBID]       : The internal identifier of this Translation
  Arg [-ADAPTOR]    : The TranslationAdaptor for this Translation
  Arg [-SEQ]        : Manually sets the peptide sequence of this translation.
                      May be useful if this translation is not stored in
                      a database.
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  Arg [-CREATED_DATE]: the date the translation was created
  Arg [-MODIFIED_DATE]: the date the translation was modified
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  Example    : my $tl = Bio::EnsEMBL::Translation->new
                   (-START_EXON => $ex1,
                    -END_EXON   => $ex2,
                    -SEQ_START  => 98,
                    -SEQ_END    => 39);
  Description: Constructor.  Creates a new Translation object
  Returntype : Bio::EnsEMBL::Translation
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

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sub new {
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  my $caller = shift;
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  my $class = ref($caller) || $caller;
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  my ( $start_exon, $end_exon, $seq_start, $seq_end,
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       $stable_id, $version, $dbID, $adaptor, $seq,
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       $created_date, $modified_date ) =
	   rearrange( [ "START_EXON", "END_EXON", "SEQ_START", "SEQ_END",
			"STABLE_ID", "VERSION", "DBID", "ADAPTOR",
			"SEQ", "CREATED_DATE", "MODIFIED_DATE" ], @_ );
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  my $self = bless {
		    'start_exon' => $start_exon,
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		    'end_exon'   => $end_exon,
		    'adaptor'    => $adaptor,
		    'dbID'       => $dbID,
		    'start'      => $seq_start,
		    'end'        => $seq_end,
		    'stable_id'  => $stable_id,
		    'version'    => $version,
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		    'created_date' => $created_date,
		    'modified_date' => $modified_date,
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        'seq'        => $seq
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		   }, $class;

  return $self;
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}

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=head2 new_fast

  Arg [1]    : hashref to be blessed
  Description: Construct a new Bio::EnsEMBL::Translation using the hashref.
  Exceptions : none
  Returntype : Bio::EnsEMBL::Translation
  Caller     : general, subclass constructors
  Status     : Stable

=cut


sub new_fast {
  my $class = shift;
  my $hashref = shift;
  return bless $hashref, $class;
}

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=head2 transcript

  Arg [1]       : Transcript object (optional)
  Description   : Sets or retrieves the transcript object associated
                  with this translation object.
  Exceptions    : Throws if there is no adaptor or no dbID defined for
                  the translation object.

=cut

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sub transcript {
  my ( $self, $transcript ) = @_;

  if ( defined($transcript) ) {
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    if (    !ref($transcript)
         || !$transcript->isa('Bio::EnsEMBL::Transcript') )
    {
      throw("Argument is not a transcript");
    }
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    $self->{'transcript'} = $transcript;

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    weaken( $self->{'transcript'} );    # Avoid circular references.
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  } elsif ( !defined( $self->{'transcript'} ) ) {
    my $adaptor = $self->{'adaptor'};
    if ( !defined($adaptor) ) {
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      throw(   "Adaptor is not set for translation, "
             . "can not fecth its transcript." );
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    }

    my $dbID = $self->{'dbID'};
    if ( !defined($dbID) ) {
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      throw(   "dbID is not set for translation, "
             . " can not fetch its transcript." );
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    }

    $self->{'transcript'} =
      $adaptor->db()->get_TranscriptAdaptor()
      ->fetch_by_translation_id($dbID);
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    # Do not weaken the reference if we had to get the transcript from the
    # database.  The user is probably working on translations directly,
    # not going through transcripts.
    #weaken( $self->{'transcript'} );    # Avoid circular references.
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  }

  return $self->{'transcript'};
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} ## end sub transcript
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=head2 start

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  Arg [1]    : (optional) int $start - start position to set
  Example    : $translation->start(17);
  Description: Getter/setter for the value of start, which is a position within
               the exon given by start_Exon.

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               If you need genomic coordinates, use the genomic_start()
               method.
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  Returntype : int
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub start{
   my $obj = shift;
   if( @_ ) {
      my $value = shift;
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      $obj->{'start'} = $value;
    }
    return $obj->{'start'};

}


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=head2 end

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  Arg [1]    : (optional) int $end - end position to set
  Example    : $translation->end(8);
  Description: Getter/setter for the value of end, which is a position within
               the exon given by end_Exon.
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               If you need genomic coordinates, use the genomic_end()
               method.
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  Returntype : int
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub end {
   my $self = shift;
   if( @_ ) {
      my $value = shift;
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      $self->{'end'} = $value;
    }
    return $self->{'end'};

}


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=head2 start_Exon
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  Arg [1]    : (optional) Bio::EnsEMBL::Exon - start exon to assign
  Example    : $translation->start_Exon($exon1);
  Description: Getter/setter for the value of start_Exon, which denotes the
               exon at which translation starts (and within this exon, at the
               position indicated by start, see above).
  Returntype : Bio::EnsEMBL::Exon
  Exceptions : thrown on wrong argument type
  Caller     : general
  Status     : Stable
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=cut

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sub start_Exon {
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   my $self = shift;
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   if( @_ ) {
      my $value = shift;
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      if( !ref $value || !$value->isa('Bio::EnsEMBL::Exon') ) {
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         throw("Got to have an Exon object, not a $value");
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      }
      $self->{'start_exon'} = $value;
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    }
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   return $self->{'start_exon'};
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}


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=head2 end_Exon
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  Arg [1]    : (optional) Bio::EnsEMBL::Exon - start exon to assign
  Example    : $translation->start_Exon($exon1);
  Description: Getter/setter for the value of end_Exon, which denotes the
               exon at which translation ends (and within this exon, at the
               position indicated by end, see above).
  Returntype : Bio::EnsEMBL::Exon
  Exceptions : thrown on wrong argument type
  Caller     : general
  Status     : Stable
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=cut

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sub end_Exon {
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   my $self = shift;
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   if( @_ ) {
      my $value = shift;
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      if( !ref $value || !$value->isa('Bio::EnsEMBL::Exon') ) {
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         throw("Got to have an Exon object, not a $value");
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      }
      $self->{'end_exon'} = $value;
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    } 
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    return $self->{'end_exon'};
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}

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=head2 cdna_start

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    Arg  [1]    : (optional) Bio::EnsEMBL::Transcript $transcript
                  The transcript which this is a translation of.
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    Example     : $translation_cdna_start = $translation->cdna_start();
    Description : Returns the start position of the translation in cDNA
                  coordinates.
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                  If no transcript is given, the method will use
                  TranscriptAdaptor->fetch_by_translation_id() to locate
                  the correct transcript.
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    Return type : Integer
    Exceptions  : Throws if the given (optional) argument is not a
                  transcript.
    Caller      : General
    Status      : At Risk (Under Development)

=cut

sub cdna_start {
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  my ( $self, $transcript ) = @_;
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  if ( defined($transcript)
       && (    !ref($transcript)
            || !$transcript->isa('Bio::EnsEMBL::Transcript') ) )
  {
    throw("Argument is not a transcript");
  }
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  if ( !exists( $self->{'cdna_start'} ) ) {
    if ( !defined($transcript) ) {
      # We were not given a transcript, get the transcript out of
      # the database.
      $transcript = $self->transcript();
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    }

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    $self->{'cdna_start'} =
      $self->start_Exon()->cdna_coding_start($transcript);
  }

  return $self->{'cdna_start'};
}
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=head2 cdna_end

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    Arg  [1]    : (optional) Bio::EnsEMBL::Transcript $transcript
                  The transcript which this is a translation of.
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    Example     : $translation_cdna_end = $translation->cdna_end();
    Description : Returns the end position of the translation in cDNA
                  coordinates.
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                  If no transcript is given, the method will use
                  TranscriptAdaptor->fetch_by_translation_id() to locate
                  the correct transcript.
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    Return type : Integer
    Exceptions  : Throws if the given (optional) argument is not a
                  transcript.
    Caller      : General
    Status      : At Risk (Under Development)

=cut

sub cdna_end {
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  my ( $self, $transcript ) = @_;
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  if ( defined($transcript)
       && (    !ref($transcript)
            || !$transcript->isa('Bio::EnsEMBL::Transcript') ) )
  {
    throw("Argument is not a transcript");
  }
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  if ( !exists( $self->{'cdna_end'} ) ) {
    if ( !defined($transcript) ) {
      # We were not given a transcript, get the transcript out of
      # the database.
      $transcript = $self->transcript();
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    }

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    $self->{'cdna_end'} =
      $self->end_Exon()->cdna_coding_end($transcript);
  }

  return $self->{'cdna_end'};
}
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=head2 genomic_start

    Args        : None
    Example     : $translation_genomic_start =
                      $translation->genomic_start();
    Description : Returns the start position of the translation in
                  genomic coordinates on the forward strand.
    Return type : Integer
    Exceptions  : None
    Caller      : General
    Status      : At Risk (Under Development)

=cut

sub genomic_start {
    my $self = shift;

    if ( !exists $self->{'genomic_start'} ) {
        if ( $self->start_Exon()->strand() >= 0 ) {
            $self->{'genomic_start'} =
              $self->start_Exon()->start() + ( $self->start() - 1 );
        } else {
            $self->{'genomic_start'} =
              $self->end_Exon()->end() - ( $self->end() - 1 );
        }
    }

    return $self->{'genomic_start'};
}

=head2 genomic_end

    Args        : None
    Example     : $translation_genomic_end = $translation->genomic_end();
    Description : Returns the end position of the translation in genomic
                  coordinates on the forward strand.
    Return type : Integer
    Exceptions  : None
    Caller      : General
    Status      : At Risk (Under Development)

=cut

sub genomic_end {
    my $self = shift;

    if ( !exists $self->{'genomic_end'} ) {
        if ( $self->end_Exon()->strand() >= 0 ) {
            $self->{'genomic_end'} =
              $self->end_Exon()->start() + ( $self->end() - 1 );
        } else {
            $self->{'genomic_end'} =
              $self->start_Exon()->end() - ( $self->start() - 1 );
        }
    }

    return $self->{'genomic_end'};
}
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=head2 version
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  Arg [1]    : (optional) string $version - version to set
  Example    : $translation->version(2);
  Description: Getter/setter for attribute version
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  Returntype : string
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

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sub version {
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   my $self = shift;
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  $self->{'version'} = shift if( @_ );
  return $self->{'version'};
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}
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=head2 stable_id
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  Arg [1]    : (optional) string $stable_id - stable ID to set
  Example    : $translation->stable_id('ENSP0059890');
  Description: Getter/setter for attribute stable_id
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  Returntype : string
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

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sub stable_id {
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   my $self = shift;
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  $self->{'stable_id'} = shift if( @_ );
  return $self->{'stable_id'};
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}

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=head2 created_date

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  Arg [1]    : (optional) string $created_date - created date to set
  Example    : $translation->created_date('2007-01-10 20:52:00');
  Description: Getter/setter for attribute created date
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  Returntype : string
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
  Status     : Stable

=cut 

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sub created_date {
  my $self = shift;
  $self->{'created_date'} = shift if ( @_ );
  return $self->{'created_date'};
}


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=head2 modified_date

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  Arg [1]    : (optional) string $modified_date - modification date to set
  Example    : $translation->modified_date('2007-01-10 20:52:00');
  Description: Getter/setter for attribute modified date
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  Returntype : string
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
  Status     : Stable

=cut 

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sub modified_date {
  my $self = shift;
  $self->{'modified_date'} = shift if ( @_ );
  return $self->{'modified_date'};
}

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=head2 transform

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  Arg [1]    : hashref $old_new_exon_map
               a hash that maps old to new exons for a whole gene
  Description: maps start end end exon according to mapping table.
              If an exon is not mapped, just keep the old one.
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  Returntype: none
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  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : Transcript->transform() 
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub transform {
  my $self = shift;
  my $href_exons = shift;

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  my $start_exon = $self->start_Exon();
  my $end_exon = $self->end_Exon();
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  if ( exists $href_exons->{$start_exon} ) {
    $self->start_Exon($href_exons->{$start_exon});
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  } else {
    # do nothing, the start exon wasnt mapped
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  }

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  if ( exists $href_exons->{$end_exon} ) {
    $self->end_Exon($href_exons->{$end_exon});
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  } else { 
    # do nothing, the end exon wasnt mapped
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  }
}

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=head2 get_all_DBEntries

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  Arg [1]    : (optional) $ex_db_exp - external db name
  Example    : @dbentries = @{$translation->get_all_DBEntries()};
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  Description: Retrieves DBEntries (xrefs) for this translation.  

               This method will attempt to lazy-load DBEntries from a
               database if an adaptor is available and no DBEntries are present
               on the translation (i.e. they have not already been added or 
               loaded).
  Returntype : list reference to Bio::EnsEMBL::DBEntry objects
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : get_all_DBLinks, TranslationAdaptor::store
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub get_all_DBEntries {
  my $self = shift;
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  my $ex_db_exp = shift;
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  my $ex_db_type = shift;
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  my $cache_name = "dbentries";

  if(defined($ex_db_exp)){
    $cache_name .= $ex_db_exp;
  }
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  if(defined($ex_db_type)){
    $cache_name .= $ex_db_type;
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  }
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  # if not cached, retrieve all of the xrefs for this gene
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  if(!defined $self->{$cache_name}) {
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    my $adaptor = $self->adaptor();
    my $dbID    = $self->dbID();
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    return [] if(!$adaptor || !$dbID);
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    $self->{$cache_name} =
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      $self->adaptor->db->get_DBEntryAdaptor->fetch_all_by_Translation($self, $ex_db_exp, $ex_db_type);
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  }

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  $self->{$cache_name} ||= [];
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  return $self->{$cache_name};
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}


=head2 add_DBEntry

  Arg [1]    : Bio::EnsEMBL::DBEntry $dbe
               The dbEntry to be added
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  Example    : $translation->add_DBEntry($xref);
  Description: Associates a DBEntry with this translation. Note that adding
               DBEntries will prevent future lazy-loading of DBEntries for this
               translation (see get_all_DBEntries).
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  Returntype : none
  Exceptions : thrown on incorrect argument type
  Caller     : general
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub add_DBEntry {
  my $self = shift;
  my $dbe = shift;

  unless($dbe && ref($dbe) && $dbe->isa('Bio::EnsEMBL::DBEntry')) {
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    throw('Expected DBEntry argument');
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  }

  $self->{'dbentries'} ||= [];
  push @{$self->{'dbentries'}}, $dbe;
}


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=head2 get_all_DBLinks

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  Arg [1]    : see get_all_DBEntries
  Example    : see get_all_DBEntries
  Description: This is here for consistancy with the Transcript and Gene 
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               classes. It is a synonym for the get_all_DBEntries method.
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  Returntype : see get_all_DBEntries
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub get_all_DBLinks {
  my $self = shift;
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  return $self->get_all_DBEntries(@_);
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}

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=head2 get_all_ProteinFeatures

  Arg [1]    : (optional) string $logic_name
               The analysis logic_name of the features to retrieve.  If not
               specified, all features are retrieved instead.
  Example    : $features = $self->get_all_ProteinFeatures('PFam');
  Description: Retrieves all ProteinFeatures associated with this 
               Translation. If a logic_name is specified, only features with 
               that logic_name are returned.  If no logic_name is provided all
               associated protein_features are returned.
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               ProteinFeatures are lazy-loaded from the database unless they
               added manually to the Translation or had already been loaded.
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  Returntype : Bio::EnsEMBL::ProteinFeature
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : general
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub get_all_ProteinFeatures {
  my $self = shift;
  my $logic_name = shift;

  if(!$self->{'protein_features'}) {
    my $adaptor = $self->adaptor();
    my $dbID    = $self->dbID();
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    return [] if (!$adaptor || !$dbID);
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    my %hash;
    $self->{'protein_features'} = \%hash;

    my $pfa = $adaptor->db()->get_ProteinFeatureAdaptor();
    my $name;
    foreach my $f (@{$pfa->fetch_all_by_translation_id($dbID)}) {
      my $analysis = $f->analysis();
      if($analysis) {
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        $name = lc($f->analysis->logic_name());
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      } else {
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        warning("ProteinFeature has no attached analysis\n");
        $name = '';
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      }
      $hash{$name} ||= [];
      push @{$hash{$name}}, $f;
    }
  }

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  # a specific type of protein feature was requested
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  if(defined($logic_name)) {
    $logic_name = lc($logic_name);
    return $self->{'protein_features'}->{$logic_name} || [];
  }

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  my @features = ();
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  # all protein features were requested
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  foreach my $type (keys %{$self->{'protein_features'}}) {
    push @features, @{$self->{'protein_features'}->{$type}};
  }

  return \@features;    
}


=head2 get_all_DomainFeatures

  Example    : @domain_feats = @{$translation->get_all_DomainFeatures};
  Description: A convenience method which retrieves all protein features
               that are considered to be 'Domain' features.  Features which
               are 'domain' features are those with analysis logic names:
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               'pfscan', 'scanprosite', 'superfamily', 'pfam', 'prints',
               'smart', 'pirsf', 'tigrfam'.
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  Returntype : listref of Bio::EnsEMBL::ProteinFeatures
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : webcode (protview)
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub get_all_DomainFeatures{
 my ($self) = @_;

 my @features;

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 my @types = ('pfscan',      #profile (prosite or pfam motifs)
              'scanprosite', #prosite
              'superfamily',
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              'pfam',
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              'smart',
              'tigrfam',
              'pirsf',
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              'prints');

 foreach my $type (@types) {
   push @features, @{$self->get_all_ProteinFeatures($type)};
 }

 return \@features;
}

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=head2 add_ProteinFeature

  Arg [1]    : Bio::EnsEMBL::ProteinFeature $pf
               The ProteinFeature to be added
  Example    : $translation->add_ProteinFeature($pf);
  Description: Associates a ProteinFeature with this translation. Note that
               adding ProteinFeatures will prevent future lazy-loading of
               ProteinFeatures for this translation (see
               get_all_ProteinFeatures).
  Returntype : none
  Exceptions : thrown on incorrect argument type
  Caller     : general
  Status     : Stable

=cut

sub add_ProteinFeature {
  my $self = shift;
  my $pf = shift;

  unless ($pf && ref($pf) && $pf->isa('Bio::EnsEMBL::ProteinFeature')) {
    throw('Expected ProteinFeature argument');
  }

  my $analysis = $pf->analysis;
  throw("ProteinFeature has no attached Analysis.") unless $analysis;

  push @{ $self->{'protein_features'}->{$analysis->logic_name} }, $pf;
}


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=head2 display_id

  Example    : print $translation->display_id();
  Description: This method returns a string that is considered to be
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               the 'display' identifier. For translations this is (depending on
               availability and in this order) the stable Id, the dbID or an
               empty string.
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  Returntype : string
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : web drawing code
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub display_id {
  my $self = shift;
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  return $self->{'stable_id'} || $self->dbID || '';
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}


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=head2 length

  Example    : print "Peptide length =", $translation->length();
  Description: Retrieves the length of the peptide sequence (i.e. number of
               amino acids) represented by this Translation object.
  Returntype : int
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : webcode (protview etc.)
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

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sub length {
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  my $self = shift;
  my $seq = $self->seq();
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  return ($seq) ? CORE::length($seq) : 0;
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}


=head2 seq

  Example    : print $translation->seq();
  Description: Retrieves a string representation of the peptide sequence
               of this Translation.  This retrieves the transcript from the
               database and gets its sequence, or retrieves the sequence which
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               was set via the constructor.
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  Returntype : string
  Exceptions : warning if the sequence is not set and cannot be retrieved from
               the database.
  Caller     : webcode (protview etc.)
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub seq {
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  my ( $self, $sequence ) = @_;
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  if ( defined($sequence) ) {
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    $self->{'seq'} = $sequence;
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  } elsif ( !defined( $self->{'seq'} ) ) {
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    my $transcript = $self->transcript();
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    my $canonical_translation = $transcript->translation();
    my $is_alternative =
      ( $canonical_translation->stable_id() ne $self->stable_id() );
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    if ($is_alternative) {
      # To deal with non-canonical (alternative) translations, subsitute
      # the canonical translation in the transcript with $self for a
      # while.
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      $transcript->translation($self);
    }

    my $seq = $transcript->translate();
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    if ( defined($seq) ) {
      $self->{'seq'} = $seq->seq();
    }
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    if ($is_alternative) {
      # Reinstate the real canonical translation.

      $transcript->translation($canonical_translation);
    }

  } ## end elsif ( !defined( $self->...))
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  if ( !defined( $self->{'seq'} ) ) {
    return '';    # Empty string
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  }
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  return $self->{'seq'};

} ## end sub seq
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=head2 get_all_Attributes

  Arg [1]    : optional string $attrib_code
               The code of the attribute type to retrieve values for.
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  Example    : ($sc_attr) = @{$tl->get_all_Attributes('_selenocysteine')};
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               @tl_attributes = @{$translation->get_all_Attributes()};
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  Description: Gets a list of Attributes of this translation.
               Optionally just get Attrubutes for given code.
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               Recognized attribute "_selenocysteine"
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  Returntype : listref Bio::EnsEMBL::Attribute
  Exceptions : warning if translation does not have attached adaptor and 
               attempts lazy load.
  Caller     : general, modify_translation
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub get_all_Attributes {
  my $self = shift;
  my $attrib_code = shift;

  if( ! exists $self->{'attributes' } ) {
    if(!$self->adaptor() ) {
#      warning('Cannot get attributes without an adaptor.');
      return [];
    }

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    my $aa = $self->adaptor->db->get_AttributeAdaptor();
    $self->{'attributes'} = $aa->fetch_all_by_Translation( $self );
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  }

  if( defined $attrib_code ) {
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    my @results = grep { uc($_->code()) eq uc($attrib_code) }
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    @{$self->{'attributes'}};
    return \@results;
  } else {
    return $self->{'attributes'};
  }
}


=head2 add_Attributes

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  Arg [1..N] : Bio::EnsEMBL::Attribute $attribute
               Attributes to add.
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  Example    : $translation->add_Attributes($selenocysteine_attribute);
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  Description: Adds an Attribute to the Translation. Usefull to 
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               do _selenocysteine.
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               If you add an attribute before you retrieve any from database, 
               lazy load will be disabled.
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  Returntype : none
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  Exceptions : throw on incorrect arguments
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  Caller     : general
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub add_Attributes {
  my $self = shift;
  my @attribs = @_;

  if( ! exists $self->{'attributes'} ) {
    $self->{'attributes'} = [];
  }

  for my $attrib ( @attribs ) {
    if( ! $attrib->isa( "Bio::EnsEMBL::Attribute" )) {
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      throw( "Argument to add_Attribute must be a Bio::EnsEMBL::Attribute" );
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    }
    push( @{$self->{'attributes'}}, $attrib );
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    $self->{seq}=undef;
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  }
}

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=head2 get_all_SeqEdits
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  Example    : my @seqeds = @{$transcript->get_all_SeqEdits()};
  Description: Retrieves all post transcriptional sequence modifications for
               this transcript.
  Returntype : Bio::EnsEMBL::SeqEdit
  Exceptions : none
  Caller     : spliced_seq()
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

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sub get_all_SeqEdits {
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  my $self = shift;

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  my @seqeds;
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  my $attribs;
  
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  my @edits = ('initial_met', '_selenocysteine', 'amino_acid_sub');
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  foreach my $edit(@edits){
    $attribs = $self->get_all_Attributes($edit);
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    # convert attributes to SeqEdit objects
    foreach my $a (@$attribs) {
      push @seqeds, Bio::EnsEMBL::SeqEdit->new(-ATTRIB => $a);
    }
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  }
  return \@seqeds;
}
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=head2 modify_translation

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  Arg [1]    : Bio::Seq $peptide 
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  Example    : my $seq = Bio::Seq->new(-SEQ => $dna)->translate();
               $translation->modify_translation($seq);
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  Description: Applies sequence edits such as selenocysteines to the Bio::Seq 
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               peptide thats passed in
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  Returntype : Bio::Seq
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  Exceptions : none
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  Caller     : Bio::EnsEMBL::Transcript->translate
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  Status     : Stable
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=cut

sub modify_translation {
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  my ( $self, $seq ) = @_;
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  my @seqeds = @{ $self->get_all_SeqEdits() };
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  # Sort in reverse order to avoid complication of adjusting
  # downstream edits.
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  # HACK:   The translation ENSP00000420939 somehow makes the next line
  #         bomb out ($a or $b becomes undef) if the start() method
  #         is used.  I haven't been able to find out why.  It has 10
  #         Selenocysteine seqedits that looks correct.
  #         /Andreas (release 59)
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  @seqeds = sort { $b->{'start'} <=> $a->{'start'} } @seqeds;
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  # Apply all edits.
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  my $peptide = $seq->seq();
  foreach my $se (@seqeds) {
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    $se->apply_edit( \$peptide );
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  }
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  $seq->seq($peptide);
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  return $seq;
}

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=head2 load

  Arg [1]       : Boolean $load_xrefs
                  Load (or don't load) xrefs.  Default is to load xrefs.
  Example       : $translation->load();
  Description   : The Ensembl API makes extensive use of
                  lazy-loading.  Under some circumstances (e.g.,
                  when copying genes between databases), all data of
                  an object needs to be fully loaded.  This method
                  loads the parts of the object that are usually
                  lazy-loaded.
  Returns       : Nothing.

=cut

sub load {
  my ( $self, $load_xrefs ) = @_;

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  if ( !defined($load_xrefs) ) { $load_xrefs = 1 }